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Endnotes

analysis of U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration Demand Reduction Section May 2014 The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse


Endnotes

1 "Is Marijuana Medicine." Drug Facts. NIDA. April 2014.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana.  2
"Epilepsy experts call for more research into medical marijuana."
Elson So. Miami Herald. January 22, 2014.
http://www.miamiherlad.com/2014/01/22/3886526/epilepsy-experts-call-for-more.html.
3 DEA, Office of Diversion Control, May 5, 2014.  4 "AMA Policy
Statement on Cannabis, H-95.998." American Medical Association
House of Delegates (1-13), Council on Science and Public Health
Report 2. November 19, 2013. P. 6 5 ASAM Public Policy on "Medical
Marijuana." (April 23, 2010)
http://www.wfad.se/latest-news/1-articles/213-
asam-public-policy-statement-on-qmedical-marijuanaq.  6 "American
Society of Addiction Medicine Reiterates ASAM Marijuana Policy
Positions." October 27, 2011,
http://www.asam.org/1MARIJUANA%205-062.pdf. "White Paper on
State-Level Proposals to Legalize Marijuana." Adopted by the
ASAM Board of Directors July 25, 2012.
www.asam.org/policies/state--level-proposals-to-legalize-
marijuana.  7 "Medical Use of Marijuana: ACS Position." American
Cancer Society. April 14, 2010.
Documents.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/001976-pdf.pdf.
8 "American Glaucoma Society Position Statement: Marijuana and
the Treatment of Glaucoma." Jampel, Henry MD. MHS, Journal of
Glaucoma: February 2010- Volume 19-Issue 2 'pp.75-76
doi:10.1097/IJG.obo13e3181d12e39. also www.glaucomaweb.org .  9
"Medical Marijuana." Glaucoma Research Foundation, April 24,
2012, www.glaucoma.org/treatment/medical- marijuana.php.  10
Committee on Substance Abuse and Committee on Adolescence.
"Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics
Vol. 113, No. 6 (June 6, 2004): 1825-1826. See also, Joffe,
Alain, MD, MPH, and Yancy, Samuel, MD. "Legalization of Marijuana:
Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics Vol. 113, No. 6 (June 6,
2004): e632-e638h.  11 "AACAP Medical Marijuana Policy Statement."
Approved by Council, June 11, 2012,
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/policy_statements/aacap_medical_marijuana_policy_statement.
12 "Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Marijuana" National
Multiple Sclerosis Society,
www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-we-know-about-ms/treatments/complementary--
alternative-medicine/index.aspx. January 30, 2013.  13 "Legalization
of Marijuana, Consensus Statement." National Association of
School Nurses. March 2013. p. 1 14 Ibid. p.2 15 "Position Statement
on Marijuana as Medicine." American Psychiatric Association.
November 10, 2013. P.1 16 "New Report Finds Highest Levels of
THC in U.S. Marijuana to Date." Office of National Drug Control
Policy Press Release. May 14, 2009.  17 "Potency Monitoring
Program Quarterly Report Number 124, Reporting Period December
16, 2013 ' March 15, 2014." Mahmoud ElSohly, Director, NIDA
Marijuana Project. p.7.  18 "Regular marijuana use by teens
continues to be a concern." National Institute of Drug Abuse,
Press Release, December 19, 2012. P.2 19 Ibid.  20 "Results from
the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of
National Findings." U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services,
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center
for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. September 2013.
p.1 21 Ibid. p.2 22 Ibid. p.4 23 Ibid. p.19 24 Ibid. p.28 25
Ibid. p.28 26 Ibid. p.56 27 "Substance use by adolescents on an
average day is alarming." SAMHSA News Release, September 29,
2013.  www.samhsa.gov/newsroom/advisories/1308285320.  28 "American
teens are more cautious about synthetic drugs." University of
Michigan Press Release, December 18, 2013. P. 3 www.umich.edu/news.
29 "Sixty percent of 12th graders do not view regular marijuana
use as harmful." National Institutes of Health, National Institute
of Drug Abuse, Press Release, December 18, 2013. p. 1.  37

  .......

30 "The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study: 2011 Parents and
Teens Full Report." METLIFE Foundation and the Partnership at
drufree.org. May 2, 2012.  31 Ibid.  32 Ibid.  33 Ibid.  34 Ibid.
35 Ibid.  36 "The Debate Over the Drug is No Longer about Liberty.
It's about Health." Antonio Maria Costa. March 27, 2007. Independent
on Sunday, United Kingdom.  37 "INCB President voices concern
about the outcome of recent referenda about non-medical use of
cannabis in the United States in a number of states." United
Nations Information Service.  Press Release. November 15, 2012.
38 "Why Marijuana Legalization Would Compromise Public Health
and Safety." ONDCP Director Gil Kerlikowske, Speech Delivered
at the California Police Chiefs Association Conference. March
4, 2010.  39 "Marijuana's Lasting Effects on the Brain." Messages
from the Director, Nora Volkow, Director, National Institute of
Drug Abuse. January 2013.
www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida-/directors+page/messages-
director/2013/01/marijuanas-lasting-effects-brain.  40 "Marijuana
Can Lower IQ in Teens." Sarah Glynn. Medical News Today.  September
19, 2012.  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/250404.php;
"Teen Cannabis Use Linked to Lower IQ." Christian Nordqvist.
Medical News Today. August 28, 2012.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/249508.php.  41 Society
of Neuroscience (SfN). "Brain changes are associated with casual
marijuana use in young adults, study finds." ScienceDaily. April
15, 2014.  www.sceincedaily.com/releases/2014/04/1404415181156.htm.
42 "Mental Illness and Heavy Cannabis Use Often Go Hand-In-Hand."
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.  April 4, 2013. Medical
News Today.  www.medicalnewstoday.com/releasese/258550.php.  43
"Study: Marijuana Use Increases Risk of Academic Problems." David
Schick. USA Today. June 7, 2013.
http://www.ustaody.com/story/news/nation/2013/06/07/marijuana-academic-problem/2399693/.
44 "Nearly One in Ten First-Year College Students at One University
Have a Cannabis Use Disorder; At-Risk Users Report Potentially
Serious Cannabis-Related Problems." CESAR FAX, Vol. 17, Issue
3, January 21, 2008. www.cesar.umd.edu.  45 "Teen Marijuana Use
Worsens Depression: An Analysis of Recent Data Shows "Self
Medication" Could Actually Make Things Worse." Office of National
Drug Control Policy May 2008.
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/news/press08/marij_mental_health.pdf.
46 "Cannabis increases risk of psychosis in teens." Telegraph
News, June 2, 2008.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2063199/Cannabis-increases-risk-of-psychosis-in-teens.html.
47 "Drug Abuse; Drug Czar, Others Warn Parents that Teen Marijuana
Use Can Lead to Depression." Life Science Weekly. May 31, 2005.
48 Kearney, Simon. "Cannabis is Worst Drug for Psychosis." The
Australian.  November 21, 2005.  49 Curtis, John. "Study Suggests
Marijuana Induces Temporary Schizophrenia-Like Effects." Yale
Medicine.  Fall/Winter 2004.  50 "Marijuana Use Takes Toll on
Adolescent Brain Function, Research Finds." Science Daily, October
15, 2008.  http://www.scienedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081014111156.htm.
51 "Memory, Speed of Thinking and Other Cognitive Abilities Get
Worse Over Time With Marijuana Use" March 15, 2006.
http://www.news-medical.net 52 "Marijuana May Shrink Parts of
the Brain." Steven Reinberg. U.S. News and World Report ' Online.
June 2, 2008.
http://health.usnews.com/articles/healthday/2008/06/02/marijuana_may_shrink_parts_of_the_brain.html.
"Long-term Cannabis Users May Have Structural Brain Abnormalities."
Science Daily. June 3, 2008.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080602160845.htm.
53 Kate Benson, "Dope smokers not so mellow." The Sydney Morning
Herald, July 30, 2009.
http://www.smh.com/au/news/health/dope-smokers-not-so-mellow-20090407-9yOi.html.
54 "Neurotoxicology; Neurocognitive Effects of Chronic Marijuana
Use Characterized." Health & Medicine Week.  16 May 2005.  55
"Study: Marijuana may Affect Neuron Firing." November 29, 2006.
UPI.  56 "Marijuana Links with Psychosis." AM with Tony Eastley.
February 8, 2011.  http://www.abc.nte.au/am/content/2011/s3132596.htm.
57 "A Functional MRI Study of the Effects of Cannabis on the
Brain." Prof.  Phillip McGuire, UK, May 1, 2007.  2nd International
Cannabis and Mental Health Conference, London, UK.  58 Laucius,
Joanne. "Journal Articles Link Marijuana to Schizophrenia" August
28, 2006 www.Canada.com 38

  .......

59 "Teenage Schizophrenia is the Issue, Not Legality." Robin
Murray.  Independent on Sunday. March 18, 2007.  www.independent.co.uk.
60 "UN Warns of Cannabis Dangers as it Backs 'IoS' Drugs 'Apology'."
Jonathan Owen. Independent on Sunday.  March 25, 2007.
www.independent.co.uk. and "Cannabis-related Schizophrenia Set
to Rise, Say Researchers." Science Daily. March 26, 2007.
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070324132832.htm.  61
"Long-term pot use can double risk of psychosis." March 1, 2010.
http://www.msnbc.com/id/35642202/ns/health-addictions/?ns=health-addictions.
Also McGrath J, et al "Association between cannabis use and
psychosis-related outcomes using sibling pair analysis in a
cohort of young adults" Arch Gen Psych 2010; DOI:
10.1001/archgenspychiatry.2010.6.  62 "Prenatal Marijuana Exposure
and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6." Abstract, Journal
of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.
47(3):254-263, March 2008.  Goldschmidt, Lidush Ph.D. et al.  63
"Marijuana Use Affects Blood Flow in Brain Even After Abstinence."
Science Daily, February 12, 2005.
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050211084701.htm; Neurology,
February 8, 2005, 64.488-493.  64 "Highlights of the 2011 Drug
Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Findings on Drug-Related Emergency
Department Visits." The DAWN Report, Department of Health and
Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and
Quality February 22, 2013.p.3 65 Ibid. p.4.  66 "Highlights of
the 2010 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Findings on Drug-Related
Emergency Department Visits." The DAWN Report, Department of
Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics
and Quality July 2, 2012. P.4.  67 "Results from the 2012 National
Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of Findings." U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral
Health and Quality Statistics, September 2013. p. 77 68 "A Day
in the Life of American Adolescents: Substance Use Facts Update."
The CBHSQ Report, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and
Quality, August 29, 2013.  http://www.samhsa.gov/data .  69
"Marijuana." Drug Facts. NIDA. January 2014. Pp. 2-3.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research- reports/marijuana-abuse.
70 State of California, Environmental Protection Agency, Office
of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Safe Drinking Water
and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, "Chemicals Known to the State
to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity, September 11, 2009.
http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65_list/files/P65single091001.pdf.
71 "Pot smoking during pregnancy may stunt fetal growth." January
22, 2010.  http://www.reuters.com/article/id=Ustre60L55L20100122.
72 "Heavy Marijuana Use Linked to Gum Disease, Study Shows."
Science Daily, February 6, 2008.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080205161239.htm.
"Cannabis Smoking and Periodontal Disease Among Young Adults."
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol.  299, No.
5, February 6, 2008.
http://www.jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/299/5/25.  73
"Marijuana Smokers Face Rapid Lung Destruction ' As Much As 20
Years Ahead of Tobacco Smokers." Science Daily, January 27, 2008.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080123104017.htm.
"Bullous Lung Disease Due to Marijuana." Respirology (2008) 13,
122-127.  74 Marijuana Smoke Contains Higher Levels of Certain
Toxins Than Tobacco Smoke." Science Daily, December 18, 2007.
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071217110328.htm. "A
Comparison of Mainstream and Sidestream Marijuana and Tobacco
Smoke Produced Under Two Machine Smoking Conditions." American
Chemical Society, Chemical Research in Toxicology, December 17,
2008.  75 "Marijuana Worsens COPD Symptoms in Current Cigarette
Smokers." American Thoracic Society. Science Daily, May 23, 2007.
76 "How Smoking Marijuana Damages the Fetal Brain." Karolinska
Institute.  Science Daily, May 29, 2007.  77 "Cannabis Linked
to Lung Cancer Risk." Martin Johnston. New Zealand Herald, March
27, 2007.  78 "Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Risk of Testicular
Cancer." Science Daily, February 9, 2009.
http://www.scienedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209075631.htm.
"Marijuana Use Linked to Testicular Cancer.  Kelly Fitzgerald.
Medical News Today. September 10, 2012.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/250050.php.  79 Tertrault,
Jeannette M. MD, et. al., "Effects of Marijuana Smoking on
Pulmonary Function Respiratory Complications: A Systematic Review"
Arch. Intern. Med. 2007:167:221-228; Science Daily, "Long-term
Marijuana Smoking Leads to Respiratory Complaints,"
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070212184119.htm.  39

  .......

80 "Marijuana Use Linked to Early Bladder Cancer."
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articlces/36695.php.  January
26, 2006.  81 "Marijuana Tied to Precancerous Lung Changes"
Reuters. July 13, 2006.  http://today.reuters.com/misc See also:
"The Association Between Marijuana Smoking and Lung Cancer"
Archives of Internal Medicine.
http://archinte.ama.assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1359?maxtoshow July
10, 2006.  82 "Cannabis More Toxic than Cigarettes: Study,"
French National Consumers' Institute, 60 Million Consumers
(magazine) April 2006, www.theage.com.au.  83 "Conception and
Pregnancy Put at risk by Marijuana Use" News-Medical.Net August
2, 2006 See also: "Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Deficiency Limits
Earl Pregnancy Events" Research Article. Journal of Clinical
Investigation. Published March 22, 2006, revised May 23, 2006
http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/8/2122 84 In utero
Marijuana Exposure Alters Infant Behavior. Reuters, January 17,
2007.  85 Metro, Michael J., MD. "Association Between Marijuana
Use and the Incidence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma Suggested"
http://www.news.medical.net June 28, 2006.  86 Tashkent, D.P.,
"Smoked Marijuana is a Cause of Lung Injury." Monaldi Archives
for Chest Disease 63(2):93- 100, 2005.  87 "Marijuana Associated
with Same Respiratory Symptoms as Tobacco," YALE News Release.
January 13, 2005.  (14 January 2005). See also, "Marijuana Causes
Same Respiratory Symptoms as Tobacco," January 13, 2005, 14WFIE.com.
88 "What Americans Need to Know about Marijuana," page 9, ONDCP.
89 "Decreased Respiratory Symptoms in Cannabis Users Who Vaporize,"
Harm Reduction Journal 4:11, April 16, 2007.  90 "Marijuana
Affects Brain Long-Term, Study Finds." Reuters. February 8, 2005.
See also: "Marijuana Affects Blood Vessels." BBC News. 8 February
2005; "Marijuana Affects Blood Flow to Brain." The Chicago Sun-
Times. February 8, 2005; Querna, Elizabeth. "Pot Head." US News
& World Report. February 8, 2005.  91 Smith, Michael. Medpage
Today. February 12, 2007.
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Neurology.GeneralNeurology/tb/5048.  92
"HIV Patients: Marijuana Eases Foot Pain." Associated Press.
February 13, 2007.  93 Weiss, Rick. "Research Supports Medicinal
Marijuana." Washington Post.  February 13, 2007.  94 Dahlbert,
Carrie Peyton. "Marijuana Can Ease HIV-related Nerve Pain."
McClatchy Newspapers. Feb. 13, 2007.  95 Hashibe M, Morgenstem
H, Cui Y, et al. Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper
aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based
case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;
15:1829- 1834.  96 "Heavy marijuana use not linked to lung
cancer," News-Medical.Net, Wednesday, May 24, 2006.  97
http://www.nida.nih.gov/DirReports/DirRep207/DirectorReport8.html.  98
http://www.umich.edu/news/index.html?Releases/2006/Oct06/r101006a.
99 "Health risks of cannabis 'underestimated,' experts warn."
BBC News.  June 5, 2012.  http://www/bbc.co.uk/news/health-18283689.
"The impact of cannabis on your lungs." British Lung Foundation
2012.  www.wkcia.org/research/blf_cannabis_lungs.pdf.  100 "Risk
of Premature Birth Doubled By Marijuana Use." University of
Adelaide. Medical News Today. July 19, 2012.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/247945.php.  101
"Marijuana grows involved water diversion; Fish and Game called
in." Tiffany Revelle. The Daily Journal.  October 13, 2010.
http:www.ukiahdaily.journal.com/fdcp?1287008819062.  102 "Over
$1.45 billion worth of pot eradicated from public lands." KERO.
September 6, 2012.
www.turnto23.com/news/1-45-billion-woeth-of-pot-eraticated-from-public-lands.
103 Ibid.  104 "Pot farms take dirty toll." Joe Mozingo. Los
Angeles Times. December 23, 2012.
www.article.latimes.com/2012/dec/23/local/la-me-pot-enviro-20121223.
105 "Growers of thirsty pot are under fire in drought-struck
California." Rob Hotakainen. McClatchy Washington Bureau. March
26, 2014.
http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2014/03/26/222487/growers-of-thirsty-pot-are-under.html.
106 Ibid.  107 Ibid.  108 "Pot farm poison; study finds marijuana
grows likely responsible for mammal deaths." Thadeus Greenson.
July 14, 2012. The Times Standards.
http://www.times-standard.com/localnews/ci_2105742/pot-farm-poison-study-find-
marijuana-grows-likely.  109 Marijuana plantations threaten
national forest resources." Summit Voice. December 19. 2011.
http://summitcountyhvoice.com/2011/12/29/marijuana-plantationa-threaten-national-forest-resources/
40

  .......

110 Move over meth: Marijuana 'grow houses' an increasing menace."
MSN Real Estate. January 3, 2011.
http://realestate.msn.com/article.aspx?cp-documentid=26924092.
111 "Renters turn Brevard homes into pot farms." January 11,
2010.
http://www.floridatoday.com/aricle/20100111/NEWS01/1110315?Renters-turn-Brevard-homes-into-pot-famrs-
%7c-video.  112 "Why growing marijuana indoors is a major
environmental problem." AlterNet. Jacob Leland. December 3, 2013.
www.alternet.org/drugs/why-growing-marijuana-indoors-major-enviornmental-problem.
113 "Indoor Marijuana Grow Houses Pose Health Threat." National
Jewish Health Press Release. September 11, 2012.
www.nationaljewish.org/about/mediacenter/pressrelases/2012/marijuanagrowhouses.
114 "What are you smoking? Study finds pesticides transfer to
marijuana smoke." Thadeus Greenson. The Times- Standard. December
3, 2013.
www.times-standard.com/local/news/ci_24628828/what-are-you-smoking-study-finds-
pesticides-transfer#.  115 Korn, Peter, "Medical marijuana: a
broken system." Portland Tribune.  April 25, 2010.  116 Jacklet,
Ben "Marijuana goes mainstream in Southern Oregon," Oregon
Business, May 2010. p 35.  117 Ibid.  118 Harding, Anne. "Pot
May Indeed Lead to Heroin Use, Rat Study Shows" Reuters. July
12, 2006. See also: "Why Teenagers Should Steer Clear of Cannabis"
Vine, Gaia.  www.NewScientist.com 119 "What Americans Need to
Know about Marijuana." Office of National Drug Control Policy.
October 2003.  120 Gfroerer, Joseph C., et al. "Initiation of
Marijuana Use: Trends, Patterns and Implications." Department
of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. July 2002.
Page 71.  121 "Non-Medical Marijuana II: Rite of Passage or
Russian Roulette?" CASA Reports. April 2004. Chapter V, Page 15.
122 "What Americans Need to Know about Marijuana," page 9, ONDCP.
123 Furber, Matt. "Threat of Meth''the Devil's Drug''increases."
Idaho Mountain Express and Guide.  December 28, 2005.  124
"Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Summary of National Findings." U.S.  Department of Health and
Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and
Quality. September 2013. p.52 125 "Nearly One in Ten U.S High
School Students Report Heavy Marijuana Use in the Past Month:
One Third or More of Heavy Users Also Used Cocaine, Ecstasy, or
Other Drugs." CESARFAX, Vol 21. Issue 21. May 29, 2012.  126 The
Partnership Attitude Tracking Study: 2011 Parents and Teens Full
Report." MetLife and the Partnership At Drugfree.org. May 2,
2012. P7.  127 "Medical pot laws result in increased teen drug
use. "White Mountain Independent. January 13, 2011.
http://www.wmicentral.com/news/atests_news/medical-pot-laws-result-in-increased-teen-drug-
use/article_a6622a0c-1f42-11e0-a38e-001cc4c002e0.html.  128 "New
Study shows dramatic shifts in substance abuse treatment admissions
among states between 1998 and 2008." Department of Health and
Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration,
Office of Applied Studies. Press Release. December 22, 2010.
http://www.samhsa.gov.  129 California No. 1 in marijuana
admissions." Cheryl Wetzstein. The Washington Times. December
30, 2010.  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/dec/30/ 130
"Marijuana Myths & Facts: The Truth Behind 10 Popular Misperceptions."
Office of National Drug Control Policy.  (January 12, 2006).
131 Ibid. p. 77 132 Treatment Episode Data Sets (TEDS) 2001-2011:
National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services."
Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral
Health Statistics and Quality. July 2012. p.1 133 Ibid. P.2 134
Ibid. p19.  135 Ibid. 19.  136 "Non-Medical Marijuana III: Rite
of Passage or Russian Roulette?" A CASA White Paper, June 2008.
http://www.casacolumbia.org.  137 "Early Marijuana Use a Warning
Sign For Later Gang Involvement," ONDCP press release, June 19,
2007.  41

  .......

138 "The Relationship Between Alcohol, Drug Use and Violence
Among Students." Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of American
(CADCA). www.cadca.org. Pride Surveys, (2006) Questionnaire
report for grades 6-12: 2006 National Summary. Page 184.
http://www.pridesurveys.com/customercetner/us05ns.pdf.  139
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006) "Marijuana Myths
and Facts: The Truth Behind 10 Popular Misperceptions. "Page 10.
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/marijuana_mythis_facts.
140 Ibid.  141 "Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug
Use and Health: Summary of National Findings." U.S.  Department
of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics
and Quality. September 2013. P.71.  142 NIDA Info Facts: Drugged
Driving, September 10, 2009, page 1.
http://drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/driving.html.  143 Volz, Matt.
"Drug overdose: Medical marijuana facing a backlash."
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37282436.  144 "Toxicology Lab Results
Show Increase in Share of Marijuana Driving Cases in Washington
State Since Drug Was Legalized" SAM Press Release. March 3, 2014.
www.learnaboutsam.com/Washington-state-experiences-40-
increase-share-of-total-driving-cases-testing-positive-for-recent-marijuana-use-since-drug-was-legalized.
145 "Metro: Marijuana Impairment Rising Among Drivers." Joe
Bartels.  Channel 8 News. April 23, 2014.
http://www.8newsnow.com/story/25269474/metro-marijuana-impairment-rising-among-drivers.
146 Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies:
Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Summary of National Findings. September 2013. P.29.  147 "California
Roadside Survey Finds Twice as Many Weekend Nighttime Drivers
Test Positive for Other Drugs as for Alcohol: Marijuana as Likely
as Alcohol." CESARFAX, Col. 21, Issue 48, December 3, 2012.
www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/vol21/21-48.pdf.  148 "One in Four Teens
Admits to Driving Under the Influence and Many Believe It Does
Not Impact Their Safety." Press Release, Liberty Mutual and SADD,
April 25, 2013.
http://www.sadd.org/pdf//Teens_Driving_Summer_Press_Release-FINAL_040413/pdf.
149 "New Study Finds Teens Have Risky Definitions of 'Safe
Driving'." Liberty Mutual and SADD Press Release, March 18, 2014.
http://www.sadd.org/press/risky-driving.htm.  150 O'Malley, P.M.
and Johnston, L.D. (2013). "Driving after drug or alcohol use
by US high school seniors." American Journal of Public Health.
103:2027-2034.  151 "Signs point to rise in drugged driving
fatalities." Science Daily.  January 30, 2014.
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140130111003.htm.  152
"Cannabis Use Doubles Chances of Vehicle Crash, Review Finds."
Sciencedaily. February 9, 2012.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120210111254.htm.
153 "Drug use involved in 25% of fatal crashes, study finds."
Jonathan Shorman. USA Today. July 23, 2011.
http://www.yourlife.usatoday.com/yhealth/story/2011/06/Drug-use-involved-in-25-of-fatal-chrashes-study-
finds/48740704/1. "Drugs and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types
of Fatal Crashes." Eduardo Romano and Robert Voas. Journal of
Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. July 2011.  154 DuPont, Robert.
"National Survey Confirms that Drugged Driving is Significantly
More Widespread than Drunk Driving." Commentary, Institute for
Behavior and Health, July 17, 2009.  page 1. http://www. ibhinc.org.
155 "One-third of Fatally Injured Drivers with Known Test Results
Tested Positive for at Least one Drug in 2009.  CESARFAX. Vol.
19, Issue 49. December 20, 2010. www.cesar.umd.edu.  156 "Cannabis
and Driving: A Scientific and Rational Review." Armentano, Paul.
NORML/NORML Foundation.  January 10, 2008.
http://normal.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7475 for article and
http://normal.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7459 for the full report.
157 DuPont, Robert. "National Survey Confirms that Drugged Driving
is Significantly More Widespread than Drunk Driving." Commentary,
Institute for Behavior and Health, July 17, 2009.  page 1.
http://www.ibhinc.org.  158 "Drug-Impaired Driving by Youth
Remains Serious Problem." NIDA News Release, October 29, 2007.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/newsroom/07/NR10-29.html.  159 "The
Drugged Driving Epidemic," The Washington Post, June 17, 2007.
160 Drummer, OH, Gerostamoulos J, Batziris H, Chu M, Caplehorn
J, Robertson MD, Swann P. "The Involvement of drugs in drivers
of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes.."
Accid Anal Prev 36(2):229-48, 2004.  161 Couper, Fiona, J, and
Logan, Barry Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration., page 11. April 2004.
162 "New pot law blamed as violence escalates." Laurel J. Sweet
and O'Ryan Johnson. Boston Herald. November 15, 2010.
http://www.bostonherald.com/news/politics/view.bg?articleid=1296392.  42

  .......

163 "FHP: Man led trooper on chase with kids-and pot ' in car."
Bay News 9. February 3, 2011.
http://www.baynews9.com/article/news/2011/february/204034/FHP:-Man-led-trooper-on-chase-with-kids-in-
car-?cid=rss.  164 "Driving under influence of marijuana a growing
problem." Gwen Florio.  Missoulian.com January 16, 2011.
http://missoulian.com/news/local/article_1d9f6f8a-2137-11e0-a0be-001cc4c002e0.html.
165 "Jessica Gamble, Ohio Mom, Charged for Teaching 2-Year-Old
Daughter to Smoke Marijuana." Caroline Black.  CBS WKRC. September
16, 2010.  http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504083_162-20016662-504083.html.
166 "Va. Pair Charged After Toddler Eats Marijuana." Whz.com.
October 8, 2010.
http://wjz.com/wireapnewsva/Manassas.pair.charged.2.1953794.html.  167
"Video shows parents giving pot pipe to toddler." Beatriz
Valenzuela.  Daily Press. January 17, 2011.
http://www.vvdailypress.com/articles/parents-25426-pipe.pot.html.  168
"Police: Mom gave pot to her 3 kids." Lance Berry. October 28,
2010.
http://www.wcpo.com/dpp/news/region/_east_cincinnati/madisonville/police%3A-mom-gave-pot-to-3-kids.
169 "Toddler in Critical Condition After Ingesting Marijuana."
February 2, 2011.
http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2011/02/02/toddler-in-critical-condition-after-ingesting-marijuana.
170 "Mother charged after toddler hospitalized for eating
marijuana, pills." Michelle Hunter. The Times-Picayune.  October
13, 2008.
http://www.nola.com/news/index.ssf/2008/10children_3_and_4_hospitalized.
html.  171 "Why Marijuana Edibles Are Harder to Regulate And
Don't Get You as High." Susan Donaldson James. ABC News. February
4, 2014.
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/marijuana-edibles-harder-regulate-high/story?-d=22350866.
172 "Student falls to death after eating marijuana cookie. Keith
Coffman.  Reuters. April 3, 2014. http://www.abs-
cbnnews.com/lyfestyle/classified-odd/04/03/14/student-falls-death-after-eating-marijuana-cookie.
173 "Two Denver deaths tied to recreational marijuana use."
Associated Press. April 18, 2014
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/two-denver-deaths-tied-to-recreational-marijuana-use.
174 "Rate of Poison Center Calls for Unintentional Pediatric
Marijuana Exposures More Than Tripled in States That Decriminalized
Marijuana Before 2005" CESAR FAX, Volume 23, Issue 8, March 3,
2014. www.cesar.umd.edu.  175 "Colo. Kids getting into parents'
pot-laced goodies." Trevor Hughes.  USA Today. April 2, 2014.
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/04/02/marijuana-pot-edibles-colorado/7154651/.
176 "Middle School Students Arrested for Pot Edibles." CBS News.
March 10, 2014.
http://denver.cbslocal.com/2014/03/10/middle-school-students-arrested-for-pot-edibles/.
177 "More dogs coming down with pot poisoning." Teresa Watanabe.
LA Times.  September 19, 2013.
http://latimes.com/local/la-me-wananabe-pot-pooch-20130920,0,2560482.story.
178 Ibid.  179 Ibid.  180 "Pot and pets: For them, a high is
dangerous ' so stash that stash." Stephen Sheldon. Denver Post.
December 16, 2013.
www.denverpost.com/homegarden/ci_24717916/pot-and-pets-them-high-is-dangerous-so#.
181 "Making butane hash a lethal mix in home drug labs." Joe
Mozingo. LA Times. February 5, 2014.
www.latimes.com/local/la-me-butane-hash-20140206,0,5499031.story.  182
""Explosions highlight dangers of making hash oil." KOAA5. March
9, 2014.
http://www.koaa.com/news/explosions-highlight-dangers-of-making-hash-oil.
183 Ibid.  184 Ibid.  185 Ibid.  186 "Police: Criminal targeting
San Jose's medicinal marijuana clubs." Sean Webby. The Mercury
News. December 16, 2010. http://www.mercurynews.com/fdcp?1293042861859.
187 "LAPD investigates third shooting at a medical marijuana
dispensary." Andrew Blackstein, Los Angeles Times, July 1, 2010.
http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-pot-shooting-201000701,0,4009176.story.
188 "Pentagon shooter had a history of mental illness." March
5, 2010.  http://www.msnbc.com/id/35716821/ns/us_news_crime_and_courts/
189 Parents warned police of Pentagon shooter's bizarre mental
state." Washington Post. March 5, 2010.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/cotnent/article/2010/03/05/AR2010030500957_2.html?hpid=dynamiclead.
190 "Calif. Drug dealer guilty of murdering 15-year-old." San
Diego Union Tribune, July 9, 2008.  www.sandiego.com.  191 "4
charged in Chaska Slaying." David Hanners. Pioneer Press. January
13, 2006. http://www.twincities.com.  192 "NTSB: Pilot Had
Marijuana In His System." KTHV Little Rock. February 6, 2006.
www.todaysthv.com.  43

  .......

193 U.S. Sentencing Commission, "2008 Sourcebook of Federal
Sentencing Statistics, see: http://www.ussc.gov/ANNRPT/2008/SBTOC08.htm,
Table 33.  194 Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Drug Use and
Dependence", State and Federal Prisoners, 2004, October 2006.
195 United States Sentencing Commission, "2006 Sourcebook of
Federal Sentencing Statistics," June 2007.  196 Ibid.  197 Office
of National Drug Control Policy. "Who's Really in Prison for
Marijuana?" May 2005 Page 22.  198 "Behind Bars II: Substance
Abuse and America's Prison Population." The National Center on
Addiction and Substance Abuse, Columbia University. February
2010. P. 2.  199 "New study Reveals Scope of Drug and Crime
Connection: As Many as 87 Percent of People Arrested for Any
Crime Test Positive for Drug Use." Office of National Drug Control
Policy Press Release, May 28, 2009 and Fact Sheet 2008 ADAM II
Report, www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.  200 "Monitoring the Future
Survey, Overview of Findings." National Institute of Drug Abuse,
December 2013. P.2.
www.drugabuse.gov/mointoring-the-future-survey-overview-findings-2013.
201 "Sixty percent of 12 graders do not view regular marijuana
use as harmful." NIDA Press Release, National Institutes of
Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 18, 2013.  P.
1 202 "American teens more cautious about using synthetic drugs."
University of Michigan Press Release, December 18, 2013. p. 3
www.umich.edu/news.  203 "Sixty percent of 12 graders do not
view regular marijuana use as harmful." NIDA Press Release,
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse,
December 18, 2013.  P. 1 204 "American teens more cautious about
using synthetic drugs." University of Michigan Press Release,
December 18, 2013. p. 2 www.umich.edu/news.  205 Ibid. p. 2 206
"Sixty percent of 12 graders do not view regular marijuana use
as harmful." NIDA Press Release, National Institutes of Health,
National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 18, 2013.  P. 1 Ibid.
p. 1 207 Ibid. p. 3 208 "National Study: Teen "Heavy" Marijuana
Use Up 80 Percent Since 2008, One in Ten Teens Reports Using
Marijuana at Least 20 Times a Month." Press Release. The Partnership
at Drugfree.org. May 1, 2012. From "The Partnership Tracking
Study: 2011 Parents and Teens Full Report." The Partnership at
Drgufree.org and the MetLife Foundation. May 2, 2012.
www.drugfree.org/newsroom/pats-2011.  209 Ibid.  210 Ibid.  211
Ibid.  212 "Prevalence of high school seniors' marijuana use is
expected to increase with legalization." Christopher James, New
York University. February 25, 2014.
http://www.eurekaalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/nyu-poh022514.php.

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