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DANGERS OF MARIJUANA: MARIJUANA AS A PRECURSOR TO ABUSE OF OTHER DRUGS

analysis of U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration Demand Reduction Section May 2014 The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse



analysis of DANGERS OF MARIJUANA: MARIJUANA AS A PRECURSOR TO ABUSE OF OTHER DRUGS: (0.919326 secs.)



DANGERS OF MARIJUANA: MARIJUANA AS A PRECURSOR TO ABUSE OF OTHER DRUGS

o Teens who experiment with marijuana may be making themselves more vulnerable to heroin addiction later in life, if the findings from experiments with rats are any indication. "Cannabis has very long-term, enduring effects on the brain," according to Dr. Yamin Hurd of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, the study's lead author.118

o Marijuana is a frequent precursor to the use of more dangerous drugs and signals a significantly enhanced likelihood of drug problems in adult life. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported, based on a study of 300 sets of twins, "that marijuana-using twins were four times more likely than their siblings to use cocaine and crack cocaine, and five times more likely to use hallucinogens such as LSD."119 o Long-term studies on patterns of drug usage among young people show that very few of them use other drugs without first starting with marijuana. For example, one study found that among adults (age 26 and older) who had used cocaine, 62 percent had initiated marijuana use before age 15. By contrast, less than one percent of adults who never tried marijuana went on to use cocaine.120 o Columbia University's National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) reports that teens who used marijuana at least once in the last month are 13 times likelier than other teens to use another drug like cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine and almost 26 times likelier than those teens who have never used marijuana to use another drug.121 o Marijuana use in early adolescence is particularly ominous. Adults who were early marijuana users were found to be five times more likely to become dependent on any drug, 22

.......

eight times more likely to use cocaine in the future, and fifteen times more likely to use heroin later in life.122

o Healthcare workers, legal counsel, police and judges indicate that marijuana is a typical precursor to methamphetamine. For instance, Nancy Kneeland, a substance abuse counselor in Idaho, pointed out that "in almost all cases meth users began with alcohol and pot."123 o An estimated 2.9 million persons aged 12 or older ' an average of approximately 7,900 per day - used a drug other than alcohol for the first time in the past year according to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Almost two-thirds (65.6 percent) of these new users reported that marijuana was the first drug they tried.124

o Nearly one in ten high school students (9 percent) report using marijuana 20 times or more in the past month according to the findings of the 2011 Partnership Attitude Tracking Survey.125

o Teens past month heavy marijuana users are significantly more likely than teens that have not used marijuana in the past to: use cocaine/crack (30 times more likely); use Ecstasy (20 times more likely); abuse prescription pain relievers (15 times more likely): and abuse over the counter medications (14 times more likely). This clearly denotes that teens that use marijuana regularly are using other substances at a much higher rate than teens who do not smoke marijuana, or smoke less often.126


summary: drug_related = 100%, drugwar_propaganda = 100%

I thought the text was interesting because of these details:


analysis of article text


prohibitionist hits:0 government drug warrior (prohibition_agency) hits:0 propaganda (drugwar_propaganda) hits:39 legalization hits:0 drug_reformer hits:0 reform_referenda hits:0 cannabis hits:21 stimulant hits:13 narcotic hits:3 hallucinogen hits:2

    prohibitionist     prohibition_agency     drugwar_propaganda     legalization     drug_reformer
    reform_referenda     cannabis     stimulant     narcotic     hallucinogen
                        
                        


incarceration/prison mentioned? NO - the issue of prison or incarceration was NOT mentioned in this article .

propaganda analysis


explicit prohibition propaganda (explicit_propaganda) hits:0 hated group (propaganda_theme1) hits:0 madness, violence, illness (propaganda_theme2) hits:10 survival of society (propaganda_theme3) hits:1 gateway, use is abuse (propaganda_theme4) hits:18 children (propaganda_theme5) hits:10 demonize, war, epidemic (propaganda_theme6) hits:0 total prohibition (propaganda_theme7) hits:0 dissent opposed (propaganda_theme8) hits:0

EXP - explicit prohibition propaganda (explicit_propaganda) GRP - hated group (propaganda_theme1) MAD - madness, violence, illness (propaganda_theme2)
SOC - survival of society (propaganda_theme3) USE - gateway, use is abuse (propaganda_theme4) KID - children (propaganda_theme5)
WAR - demonize, war, epidemic (propaganda_theme6) TOT - total prohibition (propaganda_theme7) DIS - dissent opposed (propaganda_theme8)



asserted: $drug_related at 100% ($illegal_drugs $drug_ngo)
asserted: $drugwar_propaganda at 100% ($propaganda_theme2 $propaganda_theme3 $propaganda_theme5 $propaganda_theme4)
asserted: $addiction at 60% ("addiction" "dependent"), 3 hits
asserted: $propaganda_theme2 at 100% ("dangerous drugs" "dangerous" "effects on the brain" "DANGERS" "DANGERS OF" "problems" $addiction), 7 hits
asserted: $propaganda_theme3 at 50% ("American"), 1 hits
asserted: $use_is_abuse at 100% ("Substance Abuse" "Drug Use" "drug usage" "marijuana use" "marijuana users" "use marijuana" "ABUSE"), 14 hits
asserted: $gateway at 85% ("use other drugs" "times more likely to use"), 4 hits
asserted: $propaganda_theme4 at 100% ($use_is_abuse $gateway)
asserted: $propaganda_theme5 at 75% ("Teens" "high school students" "young people"), 10 hits
asserted: $illegal_drugs at 100% ($cannabis $hallucinogen $addiction $stimulant $narcotic)
asserted: $drugs at 95% ($various_drugs)
asserted: $drug_ngo at 100% ($prohibitionist_ngo)
asserted: $prohibitionist_ngo at 100% ("CASA" "Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse"), 2 hits
asserted: $hallucinogen at 100% ("hallucinogens" $psychedelic), 1 hits
asserted: $chemicals at 100% ($alcohol $cocaine $heroin $LSD $methamphetamine $amphetamines $opiate)
asserted: $plants at 100% ($cannabis)
asserted: $euphoric_depressant at 100% ($heroin $opiate)
asserted: $euphoric_stimulant at 100% ($cocaine $methamphetamine)
asserted: $analgesic at 100% ($heroin $opiate)
asserted: $psychedelic at 100% ($LSD)
asserted: $intoxicant at 100% ($cannabis)
asserted: $depressant_intoxicant at 50% ($alcohol)
asserted: $stimulant at 100% ($cocaine $amphetamines)
asserted: $methamphetamine at 100% ("methamphetamine" "meth"), 3 hits
asserted: $narcotic at 100% ($opiate)
asserted: $opiate at 100% ($heroin)
asserted: $alcohol at 50% ("alcohol"), 2 hits
asserted: $amphetamines at 100% ($methamphetamine)
asserted: $cocaine at 100% ("cocaine" $crack), 7 hits
asserted: $crack at 100% ("crack cocaine" "crack"), 3 hits
asserted: $heroin at 100% ("heroin"), 3 hits
asserted: $LSD at 100% ("LSD"), 1 hits
asserted: $cannabis at 100% ("MARIJUANA" "marijuana-using" "Cannabis" "pot"), 21 hits
asserted: $various_drugs at 95% ("DRUGS" "drug"), 14 hits
asserted: $youth at 75% ($propaganda_theme5)
asserted: $school at 100% ("School" "University"), 3 hits

conceptevidencehitslinks
 drug of abuse implied / mentioned

drug related
[news] [concept]

illegal drugs drug ngo  
drugwar_propaganda : a drug war propaganda event, campaign release, slogan, or themepropaganda

drugwar propaganda
[news] [concept]

propaganda theme2 propaganda theme3 propaganda theme5 propaganda theme4 Why Are Americans So Easy to Manipulate? (Bruce E Levine, 2012)
Classic Modern Drug Propaganda
Themes in Chemical Prohibition
Drug War Propaganda (kindle edition)
 addiction 60%
[news] [concept]
"addiction" "dependent"3Twelve-Step Snake Oil (2012)
Ceremonial Chemistry: The Ritual Persecution of Drugs, Addicts, and Pushers (Thomas Szasz)
Rat Park
substance.com/stop-nora-volkow-l...
lewrockwell.com/2013/08/stephen-...
wakingtimes.com/2014/03/12/canna...
propaganda_theme2 : drug war propaganda theme: madness, violence, illness caused by drugsmadness, violence, illness

propaganda theme2
[news] [concept]

"dangerous drugs" "dangerous" "effects on the brain" "DANGERS" "DANGERS OF" "problems" addiction7Madness Crime Violence Illness (propaganda theme 2)
drugwarfacts.org/crime.htm
drugwarfacts.org/causes.htm
Distortion 18: Cannabis and Mental Illness
propaganda_theme3 : drug war propaganda theme: survival of societysurvival of society

propaganda theme3 50%
[news] [concept]

"American"1Survival of Society (propaganda theme 3)
The "Nation" as a Device To Create a Psychological Crowd
 use is abuse

use is abuse
[news] [concept]

"Substance Abuse" "Drug Use" "drug usage" "marijuana use" "marijuana users" "use marijuana" "ABUSE"14Use is Abuse (propaganda theme 4)
drugwarfacts.org/addictiv.htm
 gateway

gateway 85%
[news] [concept]

"use other drugs" "times more likely to use"4Use is Abuse, Gateway (propaganda theme 4)
drugwarfacts.org/gatewayt.htm
Distortion 7: Gateway
propaganda_theme4 : drug war propaganda theme: all use is abuse, gatewaygateway, use is abuse

propaganda theme4
[news] [concept]

use is abuse gateway Use is Abuse, Gateway (propaganda theme 4)
propaganda_theme5 : drug war propaganda theme: children corrupted by drugschildren

propaganda theme5 75%
[news] [concept]

"Teens" "high school students" "young people"10Children Corrupted (propaganda theme 5)
drugwarfacts.org/adolesce.htm
Think of the children
 drug of abuse

illegal drugs
[news] [concept]

cannabis hallucinogen addiction stimulant narcotic  
 drugs 95%
[news] [concept]
various drugs  
 drug ngo
[news] [concept]
prohibitionist ngo  
 prohibitionist ngo
[news] [concept]
"CASA" "Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse"2The Top Five Special Interest Groups Lobbying To Keep Marijuana Illegal
Vested Interests of Prohibition: The Police
Police Are the Prohibitionist Lobby
this is what a police state looks like
Pot Threatens Booze Profits
A Center for Statistics Abuse?
columbia.edu/cu/norml/cproject.html
Califano's CASA
Drugfree.org - Pharmaceutical Corporation Lobby
hallucinogen : the hallucinogens or psychedelics; also disassociativeshallucinogen
[news] [concept]
"hallucinogens" psychedelic1MAPS.org/
erowid.org/
lycaeum.org/
mapinc.org/hallucinogens.htm
Wikipedia: Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants
 psychoactive chemical

chemicals
[news] [concept]

alcohol cocaine heroin LSD methamphetamine amphetamines opiate erowid.org/chemicals/chemicals.s...
 psychoactive plant

plants
[news] [concept]

cannabis erowid.org/plants/plants.shtml
 euphoric depressant
[news] [concept]
heroin opiate  
 euphoric stimulant
[news] [concept]
cocaine methamphetamine  
 analgesic
[news] [concept]
heroin opiate  
 psychedelic
[news] [concept]
LSD maps.org/
Psychedelic
psychedelic-library.org/
 intoxicant
[news] [concept]
cannabis  
 depressant intoxicant 50%
[news] [concept]
alcohol  
 stimulant
[news] [concept]
cocaine amphetamines  
 methamphetamine
[news] [concept]
"methamphetamine" "meth"3erowid.org/chemicals/meth/meth.s...
rxlist.com/desoxyn-drug.htm
mapinc.org/meth.htm
drugwarfacts.org/methamph.htm
Amphetamines: The Swedish experience
 narcotic
[news] [concept]
opiate Managing Pain
opiate : a substance derived from the opium poppyopiate
[news] [concept]
heroin Managing Pain
 alcohol 50%
[news] [concept]
"alcohol"2Stanton Peele Addiction Web Site
drugwarfacts.org/alcohol.htm
Pot Threatens Booze Profits
amphetamines : various amphetaminesamphetamines
[news] [concept]
methamphetamine The amphetamines - Consumers Union Report
Officially Approved US Military Speed/Amphetamine Use
cocaine : cocaine; any formcocaine
[news] [concept]
"cocaine" crack7mapinc.org/coke.htm
drugwarfacts.org/cocaine.htm
erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/
 crack
[news] [concept]
"crack cocaine" "crack"3drugwarfacts.org/crack.htm
 heroin
[news] [concept]
"heroin"3google.com/search?q=Alfred+McCoy...
mapinc.org/heroin.htm
drugwarfacts.org/heroin.htm
Managing Pain
 lysergic acid diethylamide

LSD
[news] [concept]

"LSD"1erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/
cannabis : cannabis (marijuana) product or usecannabis
[news] [concept]
"MARIJUANA" "marijuana-using" "Cannabis" "pot"21Cannabis: Religious and Spiritual Uses
Cannabis-Driving Studies
MAPInc.org Cannabis Link DB
medicalmarijuanaprocon.org
cannabisnews.com/
cannabisculture.com
Schaffer Library: Marijuana
drugwarfacts.org/marijuan.htm
mapinc.org/pot.htm
U.S. Prisons Thriving on Jim Crow Marijuana Arrests (2013)
 various drugs 95%
[news] [concept]
"DRUGS" "drug"14 
 youth 75%
[news] [concept]
propaganda theme5 ssdp.org/
mapinc.org/youth.htm
 school
[news] [concept]
"School" "University"3ssdp.org/

Sentence-By-Sentence Analysis

(1) DANGERS OF MARIJUANA: MARIJUANA AS A PRECURSOR TO ABUSE OF OTHER DRUGS o Teens who experiment with marijuana may be making themselves more vulnerable to heroin addiction later in life, if the findings from experiments with rats are any indication .

re: "addiction" - Prohibition propaganda claims addiction is controlled by prohibition.

re: "DANGERS", "DANGERS OF" - Prohibition propaganda rarely misses an opportunity to link crime, violence, and insanity with "drugs". The propagandist insinuates that prohibited drugs cause evil, and if it weren't for "drugs" bad things would not exist. (Madness Crime Violence Illness (propaganda theme 2) ) re: "Teens" - Prohibitionists play on parental fears by exaggerating the dangers to children of drugs. Adults must be jailed (reason prohibitionists), because kids might be corrupted with drugs. (Children Corrupted (propaganda theme 5) )

(2) "Cannabis has very long-term, enduring effects on the brain," according to Dr .

re: "effects on the brain" - Prohibitionist propaganda claims that horrible dangers are caused by "drugs." (Madness Crime Violence Illness (propaganda theme 2) )

(3) Yamin Hurd of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, the study's lead author.118 o Marijuana is a frequent precursor to the use of more dangerous drugs and signals a significantly enhanced likelihood of drug problems in adult life .

re: "dangerous drugs", "dangerous", "problems" - Drugs, the prohibitionist explains, are a wicked bane on modern man. If not for the noble drug war (i.e. jailing drug users), exclaims the propagandist, then people will run amok, and violence, death, psychosis, and plague shall cover the land. (Madness Crime Violence Illness (propaganda theme 2) )

(5) For example, one study found that among adults (age 26 and older) who had used cocaine, 62 percent had initiated marijuana use before age 15 .

re: "marijuana use" - Prohibitionists try to hammer in the idea that 'all use is abuse.' The rhetoric of prohibition needs to deny that many people can use currently illegal drugs without abusing them. (Use is Abuse (propaganda theme 4) )

(7) Adults who were early marijuana users were found to be five times more likely to become dependent on any drug, 22 ....... eight times more likely to use cocaine in the future, and fifteen times more likely to use heroin later in life.122 o Healthcare workers, legal counsel, police and judges indicate that marijuana is a typical precursor to methamphetamine .

re: "marijuana users" - "This strategy equates the use and abuse of drugs and implies that it is impossible to use the particular drug or drugs in question without physical, mental, and moral deterioration." [W.White,1979] (Use is Abuse (propaganda theme 4) ) re: "times more likely to use" - Prohibitionists often claim that a targeted drug is a "gateway" to abuse of more dangerous drugs. (Use is Abuse, Gateway (propaganda theme 4) )

(8) For instance, Nancy Kneeland, a substance abuse counselor in Idaho, pointed out that "in almost all cases meth users began with alcohol and pot."123 o An estimated 2.9 million persons aged 12 or older ' an average of approximately 7,900 per day - used a drug other than alcohol for the first time in the past year according to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health .

re: "substance abuse", "Drug Use", "abuse" - Prohibition propaganda claims that all use of any "drug" is abuse. (Use is Abuse (propaganda theme 4) )


MAPInc Bookmarks:
Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/hallucinogens.htm (Hallucinogens)
Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/meth.htm (Methamphetamine)
Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/coke.htm (Cocaine)
Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/heroin.htm (Heroin)
Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/pot.htm (Cannabis)
Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/youth.htm (Youth)

media charts

Bot's analysis of: "The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse" the U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Demand Reduction Section, May 2014
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