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Webpage: http://www.natlnarc.org/PositionPapers/EffectivenessDrugEnforcement.pdf
  
  NNOAC Insight

The Official Position of the National Narcotic Officers' Associations Coalition

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DRUG ENFORCEMENT

By

Ronald E. Brooks

President

National Narcotic Officers' Associations Coalition

 To justify the expenditure of scarce public funds for drug enforcement, we must

 first answer the question, "does a strategy of drug enforcement help to reduce the

availability of drugs and does it improve the quality of life in America."

 Our nation's drug problems are extremely complex and it took decades for our

 country to reach the current state of affairs. It would be naive to think that the problem

of drug sales and use could be solved quickly or easily. But by using a comprehensive

approach that embraces enforcement, education and treatment to fight drug use, I

believe that we can dramatically reduce the use of illegal drugs and the violent crime

that is associated with it.

 I am not an academic, a drug policy expert, or a ranking government official.

 What makes me qualified to speak to you is my employment as a narcotic officer who

has spent the past twenty-eight years enforcing California's drug laws. I am a past

president of the California Narcotic Officers' Association, representing 7,500 members,

and the current President of the National Narcotic Officers' Associations Coalition

(NNOAC).

I have seen how crime and drugs have devastated our communities and robbed

 people of their worldly possessions, their dreams and hopes. And like all of my

colleagues in law enforcement, I have watched hopelessly as drug abuse threatens our

nation's most precious commodity, its young people.

To discuss the effectiveness of drug enforcement, I want to examine the

 importance of the drug enforcement mission in this changing world. On September 11th,

2001, America was stunned by a vicious attack, which shocked the conscience of our

nation. As anger turned to sorrow, we did what Americans have always done, we went

about our lives, secure in the knowledge that America will always overcome adversity,

 National Narcotic Officers' Associations Coalition

 28245 Avenue Crocker, Suite 230, Valencia, California 91355-1201

 Phone: (661) 290-2834 Fax: (626) 960-3328

 Visit our website at: www.natlnarc.org

because it is the greatest country in the world. But like our parents and grandparents,

who were part of America's greatest generation, as they were recovering from the

attack on Pearl Harbor, we know that the world, and our lives changed forever the

morning of September 11th.

As the President and Congress shift resources and priorities to protect our

 homeland and America's interests abroad, it is natural for us to have a strong desire to

be part of our countries efforts in the war on terrorism. Law enforcement officers are

action oriented and I am sure that each of them want to join the fight to protect our great

nation and their own communities. But it is important that we all remain focused on drug

prevention and enforcement because that mission has even greater importance today

than it did before the September 11th attacks.

Probably more than most Americans, the members of the NNOAC understand

 the danger that illegal drugs pose to the fabric of our society. The damage created by

the abuse of illegal drugs has not been erased by the events of September 11th. In fact,

the use of illegal drugs weakens our nation's ability to respond to this threat and to fight

for our continued freedom.

The resolve to fight drug abuse must be stronger than ever. It must be

 understood that drug trafficking is terrorism. We must fight the efforts to reduce our

nation's commitment to fighting drug abuse. Most importantly, we must fight those

groups that are working to legalize or decriminalize drugs through strategies of harm

reduction, medical marijuana, and industrial hemp. The damage that will result from

diluted drug policies and the increased drug use, along with its corresponding public

health threat, will make the loss of life from the September 11th attacks pale by

comparison.

We have learned during congressional testimony by former Drug Enforcement

 Administration (DEA) Administrator Asa Hutchinson and Congressman Mark Souder, in

the House Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, that the sale of heroin and

hash have provided significant financial support to the Taliban and Osama Bin Laden's

Al Qaeda network. We also know that the sale of pseudoephederine by Middle Eastern

crime groups has helped to finance the Hamas and Hezbollah. In a recent speech,

President George W. Bush said, "terrorists get their money from global trafficking in

narcotics... If you quit drugs, you join the fight against terrorism." Clearly, the efforts of

police officers across the country that risk their lives each day in the fight to eradicate

drugs, are performing an important service by reducing the profits used to support

terrorism.

As the United States shifts its resources to fight the war on terrorism, the pro-

 drug lobby is taking advantage of the situation by calling on our nation's leaders to

surrender in the fight against drug abuse. Those self serving individuals and corrupt

organizations that propose drug legalization attempt to discredit our nations drug

enforcement policies by saying that we have lost the war on drugs and that our

country's limited resources would be better spent fighting terrorism. But we know that

there has never been a war on drugs. We have not committed the same resources to

fighting drugs that we would, if we were waging war. Yet despite a less than complete

commitment to the fight, we have reduced drug use and saved lives. From 1979 to

1992, by using a comprehensive strategy of prevention, treatment, and enforcement, we

reduced drug use in America by half. A fifty-percent reduction of any public health

plague should be considered a tremendous success. But because we do not announce

our successes in fighting drug use, they have gone virtually unnoticed by the press and

the public. Unfortunately, in 1992 we took our eye off the ball. Fewer resources were

dedicated to a comprehensive fight against drug abuse, and predictably, drug use

began to increase.

We now have the opportunity to repeat and exceed the outstanding success that

 we achieved throughout the 1980's. In the 2002 National Drug Control Strategy,

President Bush and Drug Czar John Walters have pledged that we will reduce drug use

by ten-percent within two years and twenty-five percent within five years. Those are

ambitious goals but they are achievable. With the leadership provided by President

Bush, Director Walters, House Speaker Dennis Hastert's Task Force For a Drug Free

America, Chairman Mark Souder's Subcommittee on Drug Policy, and with

enforcement, prevention, and treatment working together, I believe that we will be

successful in making America a safer place to live and raise our families.

These goals will not be easily obtained. Law enforcement officers and our

 nation's leaders must remember that our cause is just. All Americans must stay

focused on our mission of making America a safer place by reducing the availability of

illicit drugs. We must never lose sight of the fact that drug manufacturing, smuggling,

and sales are terrorist acts.

 I recently had the privilege of representing the National Narcotic Officers'

 Associations Coalition at the White House when the President unveiled the National

Drug Strategy. During his speech, President Bush said, "Drug abuse threatens

everything that is best about our country. It breaks the bond between parent and child.

It turns productive citizens into addicts. It transforms schools into places of violence

and chaos. It makes playgrounds into crime scenes. It supports gangs. Over time,

drugs rob men, women, and children of their dignity and their character."

 The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that in 1999,

 fifty-two persons died each day as a direct result of drug induced causes. That is more

than 19,000 of our fellow Americans, a steady increase from the 9,000 people that died

from illicit drug use in 1990. And, the ONDCP currently estimates the annual economic

costs to society from illegal drug use at $160 billion. In 2000, Americans spent more

than $64 billion for illegal drugs. That is eight times the total Federal expenditures for

research on HIV/AIDS, cancer, and heart disease. Clearly, the sale of drugs on the

streets of America is a bio-chem attack on our citizens. Yet, even these stark figures

cannot capture the human tragedy of drug abuse. The loss of children to drugs, the fear

generated by violent crime, the despair and corrosion of economic opportunity cannot

be fully captured in dollar amounts or other statistics. In a recent editorial, former Drug

Czar William Bennett wrote, "Governors who want to curb child abuse, teen pregnancy,

and domestic violence must face up to this reality: Unless they prevent and treat drug

abuse and addiction, their other well-intentioned efforts are doomed."

It is time we realize that the loss of 19,000 lives and a cost of $160 billion makes

 drug trafficking an act of terrorism of tremendous magnitude. And yet many Americans

continue to accept drug use as something that cannot be stopped. We must take it

upon ourselves to educate the American people to the realities of the dangers posed by

illegal drugs and to our opportunity to reduce drug abuse if we have their support.

Although there are many links between drug trafficking and international terrorism, we

only have to look at the death and destruction in our own country to realize that selling

drugs is an act of terrorism.

Both polling and anecdotal information shows that the American people want

 drug use eliminated and they are looking to law enforcement along with our partners in

prevention and treatment to stop it. But many in the media and other forums have

downplayed the threat posed by drug criminals. A common debate now portrays

individuals who sell drugs for a living as victims rather than the hardened criminals that

they really are. But that argument overlooks the real victims: the mother who loses a

child through a drug overdose, the family that can't go out at night because of violent

neighborhood gangs, and our senior citizens who are prisoners in their own homes

because they live in fear of drug violence.

Tragically, America has become a place where children cannot safely play

 outside, where parks and neighborhoods are infested with violent gangs, and where our

kids feel the pressure to participate in dangerous and illegal conduct. At the center of

so much of our crime and violence are drugs. For a period of time, discussions of the

crime problem and solutions to those problems were disassociated from the public

policy issue of drug use. It is important for each of us to remember that drugs fuel

criminal activities and are at the root of many community problems.

People who buy and use drugs commit crimes. Many of these crimes are directly

 related to manufacturing, growing, selling, possessing and using drugs. There are also

many visible drug related crimes including, homicides, assaults, and property crimes

committed by persons under the influence of drugs or trying to pay for their addiction.

And there will always be drug lifestyle crimes and social problems, which are less

obvious but no less attributable to the scourge of drug abuse. Drug use fuels problems

such as domestic abuse, child neglect, prostitution, driving under the influence,

homelessness, mental illness, lost productivity at work, and a shirking of one's

responsibility to family and community, all of which contribute to a weakened society.

The statistical evidence is overwhelming: Increases in drug arrests are followed

 by drops in violent crime. Drops in drug arrests are followed by increases in violent

crime. This is no surprise to the residents of drug-infested neighborhoods or to those of

us who deal with these matters professionally. Make no mistake; violence is the primary

tool of drug dealers. Drug criminals use force and intimidation to control turf, ensure the

swift payment of drug debts, and deter those who might cooperate with law

enforcement. A 1997 Bureau of Justice Statistics study of state prison inmates found

that criminals who were under the influence of drugs while committing their crime

accounted for twenty-seven percent of all murders and forty percent of robberies, a

dramatic example of the link between drug use and violent crime.

It is clear that vigorous law enforcement strategies can greatly reduce the

 number of victims of drug related violence. New York City's experience with drug

related crime control clearly proves that point. In 1994, the New York Police

Department implemented a program that targeted those individuals and drug gangs that

were believed to be responsible for much of the city's violent crime. It targeted all

levels, from street dealers to the drug kingpins that were responsible for supplying the

bulk of the drugs that made their way to the streets of New York. The results were

nothing short of phenomenal. From 1994 to 1998, narcotics arrests doubled from

64,000 to 130,000. At the same time, serious and violent crimes dropped from 432,000

to 213,000. In fact, New York City's per capita homicide rate was reduced to that of

Boise, Idaho. The cumulative effect of this multi-year trend means that 750,000 people

were spared from being the victims of violent crime and as many as 6,500 of our fellow

human beings are alive today who would have been the victims of a homicide if had not

been for the aggressive enforcement of laws including drug violations.

Conversely, the city of Baltimore, under the leadership of Mayor Kurt Schmoke,

 an advocate of harm reduction and reduced drug enforcement, suffered the

consequences of a soft on drugs policy. Compared to the time period when New York's

violent crime was plummeting, Baltimore's jumped to six times that of New York City

and its drug overdose rate is now five times that of New York. To compare results, in

1998, if New York had Baltimore's homicide rate, the city would have been faced with

3,000 deaths rather than the 627 that it experienced.

One of the most accurate barometers of the relationship between crime and

 drugs is the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program operated by the Bureau

of Justice Statistics (United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs).

It measures whether those who committed crimes tested positive for the use of drugs.

The program includes the Borough of Manhattan and what it published in its 1997 report

is shocking. Almost 80 percent of the male adults who were arrested for committing a

violent crime tested positive for drug use. And this isn't just a New York phenomenon.

In smaller cities like Birmingham, Alabama and Omaha, Nebraska, the figures are as

high as 60 percent. Many citizens think that people on drugs commit crimes only to buy

more drugs. That's simply not true. A 1991 study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics

found that only 12 percent of the inmates in state prisons committed violent crimes to

get more drugs. These statistics are a clear indicator that drug use by its self is bad.

And while this analysis may not satisfy the rigid academic standards of social science, it

is clear to me that if 60 or 70 percent of the criminals are using drugs, and only 12

percent of them commit their crimes to get more drugs, the drugs themselves are a

clear cause of the violent crime wave in America. The drug-related crime wave doesn't

result from the enforcement of drug laws, but from the ill effects of the drugs

themselves.

Clearly, whatever efforts we can make to get drugs out of our schools and

 neighborhoods will go far towards improving the quality of life for all Americans.

A 1980's study of high school students in California and New Jersey indicated

 that 76% of the high school students studied that did not use drugs made that choice in

part due to the fear of arrest and the social stigma associated with drug use. That is

what drug enforcement accomplishes. It increases price, reduces availability, put those

that participate in a drug lifestyle in jeopardy of incarceration and increases the negative

social stigma associated with drug use. The potential of sanctions of incarceration

following a drug conviction is frequently the catalyst to push a drug user into treatment.

I know that we will never arrest our way out of America's complex drug use problems,

but I believe that the evidence is clear, a strategy that embraces strong drug

enforcement in a comprehensive program along with treatment and education is crucial

if we ever expect to achieve success in our fight against illegal drugs. Similar

successes have been gained in obtaining compliance with helmet and seatbelt laws and

in reducing driving while intoxicated.

When we look at the crime problem in America today, and for the preceding

 years, we need to put it in a broader context. While the most visible manifestations of

our crime problem are the crack dealer on the street corner, or the armed gang member

terrorizing neighborhoods, or the carjacker lurking in a parking lot, we need to look

beyond these people to the ultimate source of our crime problem: international narcotics

organized criminal mafias.

For the first time in our history, major criminals who live outside our borders are

 orchestrating criminal activities in the United States. All of the cocaine and heroin, and

most of the methamphetamine and marijuana trafficked and consumed in the United

States come from abroad or through foreign national criminals that have their command

and control structure outside of the United States. The crack dealer and the gang

member are simply surrogates for major international drug traffickers operating out of

Colombia and Mexico. These major traffickers use violence and intimidation in their

own countries and in ours. In the past decade the FARC and other criminal groups

involved in drug trafficking have killed more than 3,000 Colombian Police Officers.

That is not to say, however, that street level drug dealers, or local gang members

 are not responsible for their activities. To the contrary, these hometown criminals are

the individuals who choose a life of crime, and work on a daily basis to denigrate our

communities and terrorize our citizens. While it is difficult, although not impossible, to

arrest and prosecute the world's most significant drug traffickers, we have had major

successes in reducing the levels of violent crimes in our communities, and reducing the

numbers of juvenile offenders in recent years.

Law enforcement has been stretched thin, but we have made a real difference

 and have done so for a few key reasons. Civil societies are the product of an unspoken

consensus that for whatever else we may desire, we all want to have safe

neighborhoods, a chance to raise our families without violence, and protection of our

property. Law enforcement is the last line of defense against the dark tide of drugs and

crime that threatens our civil order. Societies that do not protect civil order don't last

long. And, drug traffickers are the engines of this century's social disorder. They

terrorize our country state-by-state and community-by-community. They are so

powerful that they terrorize entire nations like Colombia, Bolivia, Peru and Mexico by

dominating and intimidating local law enforcement. They terrorize the international

community beyond those borders by funding the forces of larger terrorism through such

well-known forces of evil as the al Qaeda, FARC, Shining Path, Hamas, and Hezbollah.

And they do so without regard for race, religion, gender, or political affiliation.

But where does a civilized society turn to get the protection it needs from crime



I thought this page was interesting because:
conceptevidencehitslinks
 $drug_related
[news] [concept]
$prohibition $prohibitionist $legalization $harm_reduction $prohibition_agency $drug_policy $illegal_drugs $drug_ngo  
$drugwar_propaganda : a drug war propaganda event, campaign release, slogan, or theme $drugwar_propaganda
[news] [concept]
$explicit_propaganda $propaganda_theme1 $propaganda_theme2 $propaganda_theme3 $propaganda_theme5 $propaganda_theme6 $propaganda_theme7 $propaganda_theme8 $propaganda_theme4 Classic Modern Drug Propaganda
Themes in Chemical Prohibition
Drug War Propaganda (book)
 $explicit_propaganda
[news] [concept]
"reduce the use" "Drug Free America"2SourceWatch: War on Drugs
$propaganda_theme1 : drug war propaganda theme: hated groups $propaganda_theme1
[news] [concept]
"terrorism" "terrorists" "terrorist" "terrorizing" "terrorize" "drug user" "user" "addicts" "drug dealers" "crack dealer" "drug-infested" "dealers" "dealer" "drug kingpins" "kingpins" "drug traffickers" "gang member" "gang members" "gang" "gangs" "criminal groups"64Hated Groups (propaganda theme 1)
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/druguse.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/racepris.htm
http://www.narcoterror.org/
 $addiction 60%
[news] [concept]
"addiction"2 
$propaganda_theme2 : drug war propaganda theme: madness, violence, illness caused by drugs $propaganda_theme2
[news] [concept]
"drug related crimes" "drug related crime" "drug-related crime" "violence" "violent" "drug overdose" "overdose" "murders" "homicides" "homicide" "crime" "crimes" "Criminal" "criminals" "harm" "health threat" "death" "deaths" "damage" "danger" "dangers" "dangerous" "cancer" "problems" "problem" "mental illness" "associated with drug" $addiction109Madness,Crime,Violence,Illness (propaganda theme 2)
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/crime.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/causes.htm
Distortion 18: Cannabis and Mental Illness
$propaganda_theme3 : drug war propaganda theme: survival of society $propaganda_theme3 75%
[news] [concept]
"society" "freedom" "homeland" "community" "community-by-community" "communities" "to society" "our society" "our country" "Our nation" "our nations" "America" "Americans" "American"55Survival of Society (propaganda theme 3)
 $use_is_abuse
[news] [concept]
"illegal drug use" "drug abuse" "drug use" "drug user" "use of drugs" "using drugs" "use of illegal drugs" "abuse" "reduce the use"52Use is Abuse (propaganda theme 4)
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/addictiv.htm
$propaganda_theme4 : drug war propaganda theme: all use is abuse, gateway $propaganda_theme4
[news] [concept]
$use_is_abuse Use is Abuse, Gateway (propaganda theme 4)
$propaganda_theme5 : drug war propaganda theme: children corrupted by drugs $propaganda_theme5 75%
[news] [concept]
"child" "children" "kids" "teen" "juvenile" "high school students" "young people" "prostitution"14Children Corrupted (propaganda theme 5)
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/adolesce.htm
$propaganda_theme6 : drug war propaganda theme: demonize; use of drugs is epidemic; war $propaganda_theme6 90%
[news] [concept]
"plague" "scourge" "war on drugs" "fight against drug" "evil" "the fight"12Demonize, War (propaganda theme 6)
$propaganda_theme7 : drug war propaganda theme: total prohibiton or access $propaganda_theme7
[news] [concept]
"Drug Free" "legalize" "legalization" "decriminalize" $legalization4Total Prohibition or Access (propaganda theme 7)
$propaganda_theme8 : drug war propaganda theme: dissent attacked $propaganda_theme8 80%
[news] [concept]
"soft on drugs"1Dissent Attacked (propaganda theme 8)
 $illegal_drugs
[news] [concept]
$cannabis $narcotic $various_illegal_drugs $addiction $stimulant  
 $drugs 95%
[news] [concept]
$various_drugs  
 $drug_ngo
[news] [concept]
$prohibitionist_ngo $drug_reform_ngo  
 $drug_law
[news] [concept]
"drug laws"2 
 $prohibitionist
[news] [concept]
"Bennett" $government_prohib1Prohibition
 $government_prohib
[news] [concept]
"William Bennett" "Mark Souder" "Asa Hutchinson" $drug_czar4 
$prohibition_agency : various drug prohibition and propaganda agencies, police $prohibition_agency
[news] [concept]
"police" "law enforcement" "DEA" "DRUG ENFORCEMENT" "Drug Enforcement Administration" "Department of Justice" $drug_propaganda_agency34Drug Enforcement Administration
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/military.htm
http://trac.syr.edu/tracdea/
 $drug_propaganda_agency
[news] [concept]
"ONDCP" $drug_czar1http://www.mapinc.org/campaign.htm
 $drug_czar
[news] [concept]
"Drug Czar John Walters" "John Walters" "Walters" "Drug Czar"6http://www.mapinc.org/walters.htm
 $prohibitionist_ngo
[news] [concept]
"Drug Free America"1A Center for Statistics Abuse?
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/norml/cproject.html
Califano's CASA
http://www.PDFA.net/
 $drug_reform_ngo
[news] [concept]
$naadpc Mapinc.org Drug Reform Organization link database
 $naadpc
[news] [concept]
"Kurt Schmoke"1 
 $drug_policy
[news] [concept]
"drug policy" "drugs policy" "drug policies"5 
 $harm_reduction
[news] [concept]
"harm reduction"2http://www.mapinc.org/hr.htm
Distortion 4: Harm Reduction
 $legalization
[news] [concept]
"drug legalization" "decriminalize drugs" "decriminalize" "legalization" "legalize"5http://www.mapinc.org/decrim.htm
 $prohibition 55%
[news] [concept]
"Drug Free"1An Address By Senator Pierre Claude Nolin
ACLU Brief: Against Drug Prohibition
The Secret Of World-wide Drug Prohibition (PDF)
History of Alcohol Prohibition
Milton Friedman: Prohibition and Drugs
http://thedea.org/prohibition.html
Prohibition
 $chemicals
[news] [concept]
$cocaine $heroin $methamphetamine $amphetamines $opiate http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/chemicals.s...
 $plants
[news] [concept]
$cannabis http://www.erowid.org/plants/plants.shtml
 $euphoric_depressant
[news] [concept]
$heroin $opiate  
 $euphoric_stimulant
[news] [concept]
$cocaine $methamphetamine  
 $analgesic
[news] [concept]
$heroin $opiate  
 $intoxicant
[news] [concept]
$cannabis  
 $stimulant
[news] [concept]
$cocaine $amphetamines  
 $methamphetamine
[news] [concept]
"methamphetamine"1http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/meth/meth.s...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desoxyn
http://www.mapinc.org/meth.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/methamph.htm
Amphetamines: The Swedish experience
 $hemp
[news] [concept]
"industrial hemp" "hemp"2http://www.mapinc.org/hemp.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/hemp.htm
$medical_cannabis : cannabis for medical use $medical_cannabis
[news] [concept]
"medical marijuana"2http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/
http://www.mapinc.org/mmj.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/medicalm.htm
 $narcotic
[news] [concept]
"Narcotic" "narcotics" $opiate10Managing Pain
$opiate : a substance derived from the opium poppy $opiate
[news] [concept]
$heroin Managing Pain
$amphetamines : various amphetamines $amphetamines
[news] [concept]
$methamphetamine The amphetamines - Consumers Union Report
$cocaine : cocaine; any form $cocaine
[news] [concept]
"cocaine" $crack1http://www.mapinc.org/coke.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cocaine.htm
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/
 $crack
[news] [concept]
"crack dealer" "crack"4http://www.drugwarfacts.org/crack.htm
 $heroin
[news] [concept]
"heroin"2http://www.mapinc.org/heroin.htm
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/heroin.htm
Managing Pain
$cannabis : cannabis (marijuana) product or use $cannabis
[news] [concept]
"marijuana" $medical_cannabis $hemp2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritual_use_...
Cannabis-Driving Studies
MAPInc.org Cannabis Link DB
http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org
http://www.pot-tv.net
http://www.marijuananews.com/
http://www.cannabisculture.com
Schaffer Library: Marijuana
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/marijuan.htm
http://www.mapinc.org/pot.htm
 $various_drugs 95%
[news] [concept]
"DRUG" "drugs" "drug-infested" "drug-related"169 
 $various_illegal_drugs
[news] [concept]
"drug laws" "drug related" "drug-related" "drug related crimes" "drug related crime" "drug-related crime" "illicit drugs" "illicit drug" "illegal drugs" "illegal drug" "drug user" "drug problems" "drug trafficking" "drug traffickers" "drug abuse" "drug dealers" "drug kingpins" "war on drugs" "drug overdose"46http://www.mapinc.org
http://www.drugwarfacts.org
DEA's Drugs of Abuse booklet
http://www.drugwarfacts.org/drugtest.htm
 $youth 75%
[news] [concept]
$propaganda_theme5 http://www.ssdp.org/
http://www.mapinc.org/youth.htm
 $school
[news] [concept]
"schools" "school"4http://www.ssdp.org/
 $aggrandizement
[news] [concept]
"Official" "expert"3http://www.google.com/search?q=%22tyranny+o...

st:0.01 fo:0 s:0.02 d:0.24 c:0 db:0.044 a:3.32 m:9.99 t:17.15 (f)

as .txt file

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    Anti-prohibition political cartoons from Prohibition I.

     
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    $aggrandizement concept - terms of aggrandizement (of government)
    $school concept
    $youth concept
    $various_illegal_drugs concept - general terms for illegal drugs
    $various_drugs concept - general terms for drugs
    $cannabis concept - cannabis (marijuana) product or use
    $cannabis
    $heroin concept - heroin, heroine, diamorphine
    $crack concept - crack, or other cocaine freebase
    $cocaine concept - cocaine; any form
    $cocaine
    $amphetamines concept - various amphetamines
    $amphetamines
    $opiate concept - a substance derived from the opium poppy
    $opiate
    $narcotic concept - a drug that dulls senses, relieves pain, induces sleep
    $medical_cannabis concept - cannabis for medical use
    $medical_cannabis
    $hemp concept - industrial hemp (for food, fuel, fiber, etc.)
    $methamphetamine concept - methamphetamine
    $stimulant concept - a substance that produces stimulation
    $intoxicant concept
    $analgesic concept
    $euphoric_stimulant concept
    $euphoric_depressant concept
    $plants concept - Plants listed in this section are those which have been used by humans for their mind- or emotion-altering properties.
    $chemicals concept - Psychoactive Chemicals are chemicals which have mind- or emotion-altering properties.
    $prohibition concept - drug prohibition terms
    $legalization concept - drug decrim. or legalisaton
    $harm_reduction concept - harm reduction
    $drug_policy concept - drug policy in general
    $naadpc concept - National African American Drug Policy Coalition
    $drug_reform_ngo concept - drug policy reform organization
    $prohibitionist_ngo concept - prohibition non-governmental organization
    $drug_czar concept - a chief government drug propaganda official
    $drug_propaganda_agency concept - governmental anti-drug propaganda agencies, offices
    $prohibition_agency concept - various drug prohibition and propaganda agencies, police
    $prohibition_agency
    $government_prohib concept - infamous prohibitionist who gets (or has gotten in the past) a government paycheck or money to bolster prohibition
    $prohibitionist concept - infamous prohibitionist
    $drug_law concept
    $drug_ngo concept
    $drugs concept
    $illegal_drugs concept - drugs of abuse, so-called
    $propaganda_theme8 concept - drug war propaganda theme: dissent attacked
    $propaganda_theme8
    $propaganda_theme7 concept - drug war propaganda theme: total prohibiton or access
    $propaganda_theme7
    $propaganda_theme6 concept - drug war propaganda theme: demonize; use of drugs is epidemic; war
    $propaganda_theme6
    $propaganda_theme5 concept - drug war propaganda theme: children corrupted by drugs
    $propaganda_theme5
    $propaganda_theme4 concept - drug war propaganda theme: all use is abuse, gateway
    $propaganda_theme4
    $use_is_abuse concept - drug war propaganda theme: all use is abuse
    $propaganda_theme3 concept - drug war propaganda theme: survival of society
    $propaganda_theme3
    $propaganda_theme2 concept - drug war propaganda theme: madness, violence, illness caused by drugs
    $propaganda_theme2
    $addiction concept - addition or drug dependency
    $propaganda_theme1 concept - drug war propaganda theme: hated groups
    $propaganda_theme1
    $explicit_propaganda concept - an explicit drug war propaganda event, campaign release, slogan, or program
    $drugwar_propaganda concept - a drug war propaganda event, campaign release, slogan, or theme
    $drugwar_propaganda
    $drug_related concept - related to illegal drugs and prohibition